intro

 
light and the eye

light: the spectrum we can see
describing light & color
variations in natural light
design of the eye
the optical eye
retina
photoreceptor cells
photopigment molecules
three plus one light receptors
four types of human photopigment
measuring photoreceptor light sensitivity
five views of the cone fundamentals
photopic & scotopic vision
daylight (photopic) sensitivity
dim light (scotopic) light sensitivity
mesopic light sensitivity
trichromatic mixtures
the principle of univariance
the cone excitation space
the chromaticity plane
constraints on color vision
standard assumptions
monochromatic vision
dichromatic vision
trichromatic vision
why not 4 or more cones?
why 3 badly spaced cones?
colorblindness

 
colormaking attributes

measuring light & color
radiometry
photometry
colorimetry
the spatial geometry of light
the nine photometric elements
luminous flux
luminous intensity
the viewing geometry
illuminance
luminance
retinal illuminance
the colormaking attributes
brightness/lightness
hue
hue purity
optimal color stimuli

 
the geometry of color perception

newton's hue circle
color similarity
newton's opticks
the hue circle
the analysis of white
complementary mixtures
newton's legacy
hering's opponent processes
hering's urfarben
hering's opponent processes
the opponent functions
what are the opponent functions?
from cones to colors
a geometrical color standard
cone excitation space
cone contrast space
perceptual opponent space
necessary additional transformations
the geometry of colormaking attributes
measuring perceptual discrimination
luminance discrimination
hue discrimination
hue purity discrimination
color attributes combined
individual differences in color experience
color & language

 
basic forms of color

basic forms of color
unrelated vs. related color
unrelated color
related color
self luminous vs. surface color
local vs. veiled color
plane vs. depth color
summary of basic forms of color
current terminology and concepts

 
synthesis of surface colors

optimal circuits & analysis colors
yellow & cyan circuits
green & magenta circuits
summary of analysis optimal colors
perceptual landmarks & the optimal circuits
a 70 nm optimal circuit
additive changes in hue & luminance
natural chroma benchmarks
what is the perceptual structure for?
other visual structure

 
adaptation, anchoring & contrast

luminance adaptation
size of the challenge
the form of adaptation
adaptation mechanisms
light & dark adaptation
mesopic color appearance
brightness, lightness & anchoring
chromatic adaptation
photoreceptor adaptation
successive color contrast
complementary colors
corresponding colors
chromatic induction
chromatic contrast
chromatic assimilation
luminance & color changes
color constancy

 
additive & subtractive color mixing

additive color mixing
additive mixtures occur in the eye
the additive "primary" lights
the "white" color theory
real lights and true primaries
a scientific theory of color vision
subtractive color mixing
subtractive mixtures occur in substances
the subtractive "primary" colors
what is "primary" about subtractive primary colors?
ideal subtractive primaries
mixing subtractive primaries
don't confuse additive & subtractive mixtures
partitive mixture
substance uncertainty
material colors and visual colors
visual color can't predict material mixture
substance uncertainty in paints
the color is in the mixture

 
do "primary" colors exist?

the ancient primaries
the painter's primaries
Newtonian color confusions
material trichromacy
comprehensive color models
perceptual trichromacy
the trichromatic theory
maxwell's trichromatic measurements
maxwell's imaginary primaries
colorimetry
the metameric foundation
grassmann's laws
color matching experiments
individual differences
the white point
real color matching functions
size of the color stimulus
imaginary color matching functions
the chromaticity diagram
the cie Yxy standard observer
imaginary or imperfect primaries
two primary paradoxes
three artists' misconceptions

 
modern color models

the evolution of color models
color naming
color mixture
color models
color model assumptions
Swedish Natural Color System
four components of ncs
the ncs color model
using and interpreting the ncs
Munsell Color System
geometry of the munsell system
the munsell renotations
the asymmetry of color space
the limited gamut of color atlases
OSA uniform color scales
rhombohedral lattice
the osa uniform color space
color space is noneuclidean
images of the OSA uniform color scales

CIELUV uniform color space
color matching and color differences
the cieluv dimensions
the uniform color space
current use of cieluv
CIELAB uniform color space
the cielab dimensions
the uniform color space
current use of cielab
the CIELAB a*b* plane
CIECAM color appearance model
the ciecam02 dimensions
graphical analysis of ciecam
the ciecam color space
future prospects
the CIECAM acbc plane

comparison of hue circles

 
the structure of vision

the weave of vision
center/surround receptive fields
image frequency analysis
edge & region detection
texture & surface analysis
depth & volume perception
object & scene recognition
the visual field

 
color in the world

the causes of color
surfaces & lights
surface & shadow color
special material colors
physical color changes

color
vision

 
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